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Publications

Publications overview
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Programme publications
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Articles and papers
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
Books, chapters and reports
2013
2012
2011
2010 
2009
2008
 
In the media
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2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008 
 
Other relevant publications
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2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2000-2008

Articles and papers 2009

Torbjørn Pedersen and Tore Henriksen: 
Svaldbard's maritime zones: the end of legal uncertainty?,  The international journal of marine and coastal law, Vol. 24, No.1, 2009 
Abstract: This paper argues that Norway, by fixing the extension of the continental shelf around the Svalbard archipelago according to criteria set by the Law of the Sea Convention, may see an end to some of the legal controversies regarding the maritime zones around Svalbard. The process of determining the outer limits of the continental shelf area adjacent to Svalbard is adduced as supporting the view that Norway is entitled to establish maritime zones around the archipelago, including an exclusive economic zone. It does not settle whether the provisions of the Svalbard Treaty apply to such zones, but is adduced as supporting the view that Norway may exercise coastal state jurisdiction in these areas. 


Alf Håkon Hoel (UiT): 

Do we need a legal regime for the Arctic ocean?International journal of marine and coastal law,  Vol.24, No.2, 2009 
Abstract: This paper surveys matters related to the need for a new legal regime for the Arctic Ocean. It reviews the legal system based on the UN Convention for the Law of the Sea, and the regional and international treaties dealing with resource management, (marine) environmental protection and economic activities applicable to the Arctic. It suggests that implementation of existing legal instruments at the domestic level is a key factor needed to tackle the consequences of climate change and governance of fisheries and marine ecosystems in the Arctic. It is also considered to be the Arctic Council's responsibility to build a common understanding among the stakeholders, thereby enhancing the potential for further international cooperation. 


Torbjørn Pedersen
 (UiT):

Denmark's policies toward the Svalbard areaOcean development & International law, No.4, 2009
Abstract: Denmark and Norway have settled all their disputes in the Arctic region except one—sovereign rights in the maritime area adjacent to Svalbard. This article finds that Danish policies toward the Svalbard area have developed since the mid-1970s from being supportive of the exclusive claims of Norway, to a reserved position, and, most recently, to one of confrontation. This article explains this change of Danish posture. 


Kristian Åtland and Kristin V. Bruusgaard (FFI):

When security speech acts misfire: Russia and the Elektron incident, Security Dialogue, June 2009, vol. 40, no.3.
Abstracts: In October 2005, the Russian trawler Elektron refused to be subjected to arrest when caught by the Norwegian coast guard fishing illegally in the Fisheries Protection Zone off the Svalbard archipelago. With two Norwegian coast guard inspectors still on board, the trawler took off from its pursuers, heading for Russian territorial waters. Observers in Russia were outraged by the attempted arrest and called for Russia's Northern Fleet to flex its muscles as the hot pursuit in the Barents Sea unfolded. The purpose of this article is to explore underlying factors that may explain Russia's non-escalatory behavior during the incident and why the issue was not `securitized' by Russia's political establishment. The article is to be read as a case study exploring the phenomenon of `failed securitization'. On a more policy-oriented level, it also aims to shed light on Russian policies and perceptions with regard to the role, relevance, and usefulness of military power in the European Arctic, as well as the interplay between intra- and interstate security dynamics. 

Halvard Tjelmeland:
En utenrikspolitisk amatør? Einar Gerhardsen som statsmann 1955-58, Arbeiderhistorie, 2009  


Anastasia S. Kasiyan:

Russia and Norway 1914-2014, Novaja i novejshaja istorija, 2009

Ingrid Lundestad:
US security policy and regional relations in a warming Arctic, in Swords and Ploughshares, volume XVII, no 3, fall 2009


Arild Moe:
"So Far the EU has Neither Arctic Territory Nor a Clear Role" (comments to article by Alyson Bailes)', Europe's World, 22 June 2009.


Torbjørn Pedersen:

Endringer i internasjonal Svalbard-politikk, Internasjonal politikk, Vol. 67, No.1,2009
Abstract: The maritime area adjacent to Svalbard is potentially an area of international conflict. If pushed to the extremes, disputes over jurisdiction and exclusive rights may threaten national security. This study examines the positions of different countries in regard to the Svalbard area and explores any policy changes. It is found that a number of parties to the Svalbard treaty have changed their positions, and that their legal views are increasingly converging. This tendency is being reinforced by two contemporary processes: (i) the establishment of outer limits to the continental shelf adjacent to Svalbard is consolidating Norwegian jurisdiction in the maritime zones around the archipelago; and (ii) Norway's diplomatic efforts in mustering understanding for its legal views among other Treaty parties has resulted in increased international interest in the resources of the Barents Sea and paradoxically in an increased awareness of national interests and rights that the Svalbard Treaty may provide in terms of exploration of the continental shelf and the fisheries protection zone.

Arild Moe and Geir Hønneland (FNI):

Nordområdene og Russland: Gamle og nye utfordringer (kommentar til St.Meld. nr 15 (2008-2009), Internasjonal politikk, No. 3, 2009  


Clive Archer:
 
"Arctic security  -  zero sum or working together?' in Hanna Mäkinen (ed.) Baltic Rim Economies Expert Articles 2009, Turku (Electronic Publications of Pan-European Institute 24/2009)

I look forward to hearing from Dr. Bettina Rudloff.
Best wishes
Clive
Clive Archer

Torbjørn Pedersen:

Norway's Rule on Svalbard: Tightening the Grip on the Arctic Islands, Polar Record 45 (2) 2009
Abstract: Over the last four decades, Norwegian rule on the Svalbard islands has developed gradually, from being virtually non-existent to firm. This study explains these developments in Norwegian jurisdiction both from a perspective of international relations and within a paradigm of domestic politics. It finds that external forces have been the permissive causes of change, while internal forces represent the efficient causes. Norway's incremental strengthening of jurisdiction, notably from the mid-1970s onward, has resulted in an unprecedented Norwegian grip on the Arctic islands in which the other parties to the 1920 Svalbard Treaty seemingly acquiesce.

Alf Håkon Hoel:
Do we need a new legal regime for the Arctic Ocean?, The international journal of marine and coastal law, Vol 24, No 2, 2009, pp. 443-456
Abstract: This paper surveys matters related to the need for a new legal regime for the Arctic Ocean. It reviews the legal system based on the UN Convention for the Law of the Sea, and the regional and international treaties dealing with resource management, (marine) environmental protection and economic activities applicable to the Arctic. It suggests that implementation of existing legal instruments at the domestic level is a key factor needed to tackle the consequences of climate change and governance of fisheries and marine ecosystems in the Arctic. It is also considered to be the Arctic Council's responsibility to build a common understanding among the stakeholders, thereby enhancing the potential for further international cooperation. 

Anastasia Kasiyan:
The visits of Russian, British and German Navies to Norwegian waters, 1905-1914, History and culture of the Russian North and Nordic countries from the ancient time until today: Proceedings of III. International Methodological School of Young Scandinavist,

Olav Schram Stokke:

Protecting the Arctic Environment: The Interplay of Regional and Global Regimes, Yearbook of Polar Law 1 2009
Abstract: What is the best division of labour between Arctic environmental institutions and the broader institutions whose spatial ambits include but exceed the Arctic? The article examines this question by narrowing in on the interplay of international institutions, especially on how such interplay may influence regime effectiveness. In focus are such salient regional and broader institutions in Arctic environmental governance as the Arctic Council and the global oceans regime based on the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, and the interplay between regional and global regimes in five areas of Arctic environmental governance: climate change, inflows of hazardous compounds, regional toxics, offshore petroleum activities, and maritime transport. The controversy over the role of Arctic institutions in the overall governance system originates in differing positions on the need for international regulation or on the usefulness of Arctic-level governance as compared to other levels. Functional interdependencies as well as legal and political realities mean that the problem-solving potential of Arctic institutions varies considerably across issue areas – and that point calls into question the wisdom of recent proposals for a comprehensive and legally binding treaty for Arctic environmental protection. 

Olav Schram Stokke:
"Arctic Environmental Governance: Are New Regimes Needed?", The Circle, 1, 2009

Rob Hubert:

"Canada and Arctic Ocean governance", The Circle, 1, 2009

Valur Ingimundarson:

"Iceland ’s Post-American Security Policy, Russian Geopolitics and the Arctic Question", Rusi Journal, 154 (4) 2009

Katarzyna Zysk:
"Geopolitics in the Arctic: The Russian security perspective", Climate of Opinion, the Stockhold Network's Energy and Environment Update, Issue 12 - The Arctic, London, March 2009


Whitney Lackenbauer:
Guest editorial, Journal of Military and Strategic Studies vol. 11, no. 3 (Spring 2009). Special issue: Arctic Sovereignty and Security: Past, Present, and Future.


Sarah Wolf:

Ecological Protection Zones, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford University Press (online)

Sarah Wolf:

Marine Protected Areas, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford University Press (online)

Sarah Wolf:

Territorial Sea, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford University Press (online)

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