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Other relevant publications 2010


Robin Churchill and Geir Ulfstein:

The Disputed Maritime Zones Around Svalbard in Changes in The Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea. M. H. Nordquist, T. H. Heidar and J. N. Moore (eds). Leiden, 2010 

Lawson Brigham: 
Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of the Arctic Council, Security Brief 05-2010 of The Norwegian Atlantic Committee
Abstract: Security Brief 5-2010 is a review of the key topics and recommendations of the Arctic Council's Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) released on 29 April 2009 at the Council's Ministerial meeting in Tromso. AMSA can be viewed in three ways: as a baseline assessment of Arctic marine activity early in the 21st centruy; as a strategic guide to a host of Arctic and non-Arctic actors and stakeholders; and, as a policy document of the Arctic Council (consensus and approval was reached by the 8 Arctic states). Reviewed in the Brief are AMSA's definition of Arctic shipping, the baseline database of marine activity, key human dimension/Arctic community issues, the legal framework, key environmental issues, and infrastructure concerns.  Selected AMSA findings are listed in a table on the back cover of the brief. A discussion of AMSA's recommendations is included, as well as the entire wording of the recommendations as presented in the AMSA 2009 Report.

Ingrid Lundestad: 
US security policy and regional relations in a warming Arctic, Swords and ploughshares, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
Volume XVII, No. 3, fall 2009 


Katarzyna Zysk
Russia's Perspectives on Arctic Security, Baltic Rim Economies, The Pan-European Institute, 4/2010, p. 17
Abstract: As one of the most determined key regional players, Russia has a preponderant impact on political developments in the Arctic due to the country’s geographical position, and strong economic and military interests. Traditional “hard” security connected first and foremost to the region’s central role in Russia’s nuclear deterrence strategy, continues to weight heavily in the country’s thinking about the Arctic. However, transformations in the regional environment have led the leadership to put a stronger emphasis on “soft” and asymmetrical security challenges in recent years. An increased international interest for the region and prospects for a sharp increase in human activity generate new mission requirements for Russian security structures deployed in the region, including the Navy, the Federal Security Service (FSB), and its branch the Border Guard.


Lawson Brigham:
The Coast Guard must enhance its polar roles, Proceedings, US Naval Institute review 


Lawson Brigham: 

The fast changing maritime Arctic, Proceedings, US Naval Institute review 


Ida Holdhus: 
Developing an EU Arctic Policy: Towards a coherent approach? A study of coherence in European foreign policy, Master thesis, University of Oslo, 2010

Abstract: Ongoing developments in the Arctic have attracted the attention of a variety of actors and states. In addition to the five coastal states; Canada, the U.S.RussiaDenmark and Norway, large external actors, such as China, NATO and the EU have also stated their interest in the region. Whereas a considerable amount of research has been conducted on the relations between the coastal states, little has yet been written about interested external actors. Considering that these stakeholders might attempt to influence the future of the region, there is a need for knowledge about their Arctic ambitions. 
The EU is an interested stakeholder that considers Arctic issues important enough to desire a standalone and coherent Arctic policy. Studying the policy process might reveal information about European foreign policy-making, while also providing fundamental knowledge about the EU as an actor in the north. This paper therefore sets out to study challenges and opportunities that the EU is facing in developing a coherent policy. It firstly locates Arctic issues within the European policy process before studying intra and inter institutional relations between the European Commission, the Council and the European Parliament. Underpinning the study is an eclectic analytical framework consisting of Foreign Policy Analysis, Multi-level Governance and the concept of coherence in foreign policy.
 Recognizing the inherent tensions between supranationalism and intergovernmentalism in EU policy-making, preliminary findings suggest that firstly, the EU will have to address issues of member state positions. Of particular interest is Denmark (Greenland) which must reconcile its roles, interests and responsibilities as both an Arctic coastal state and an EU member state. Secondly, there are indications suggesting different perceptions and levels of ambition among the institutions. The European Parliament is particularly interesting in this regard. Its role in both internal and foreign policy has increased with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty.  Considering that Arctic issues touch on both internal and external EU policies, the role of the Parliament in shaping the EU’s approach towards the Arctic should therefore not be underestimated. Furthermore, there are indications suggesting that the Parliament would like a somewhat more ambitious EU involvement in the Arctic than what is preferred by the Commission and the Council. The two latter institutions have responded with a ‘reality check’, indicating the appropriate level of ambition and the limits of an EU Arctic policy.
As a final remark, it is important to remember that the EU Arctic policy is a policy in the making. The final policy will be a product of the various forces present in European policy-making as well as future developments in the Arctic. 


Vijay Sakhuja:
Russia exercises soft and hard foreign policy options in the Arctic, viewpoint,  Indian Council of World Affairs      


Clive Archer: 
The Stoltenberg Report and Nordic Security: Big Idea, Small Steps, Danish foreign policy yearbook 2010, DIIS 


Vijay Sakhuja:
China and India compete for energy in the Arctic,
viewpoint,  Indian Council of World Affairs   

Vijay Sakhuja:

Research Vessels set Sail for the Arctic, view point, Indian Council of World Affairs

Lawson Brigham:
Think again: The Arctic, Foreign Policy, September/October 2010 

Vijay Sakhuja:
Northern Sea Route and Russia's exploitation strategy, issue brief, Indian Council of World Affairs


Derrick Z. Jackson:

As the world's ice melts, the Navy's role grows, The Boston Globe, 7 July 2010


Alyson J. K. Bailes: 

NATO and the EU in the North: What is at stake in current strategy development?, Lithuania Foreign Policy review, 2010, no.23
THE NEXT GEOGRAPHICAL PIVOT. By: Antrim, Caitlyn L.. Naval War
College Review, Summer2010, Vol. 63 Issue 3, p15-38, 24p; (AN
51197440)

Caitlyn L. Antrim:
The next geographical pivot, Naval War college review, Summer 2010, 
Vol. 63 Issue 3, p15-38

Vijay Sakhuja:

Arctic Council must warm up to non-Arctic states , view point, Indian Council of World Affairs

Vijay Sakhuja:
China: breaking into the Arctic ice , issue brief, Indian Council of World Affairs

Vijay Sakhuja:

The Arctic Council: Is there a case for India, policy brief, Indian Council of World Affairs


Kristine Offerdal:
Arctic energy in EU policy: arbitrary interests in the Norwegian High NorthArctic, vol. 63, no.1, March 2010


Lance M. Bacon:
Ice breaker, Armed forces journal

Charles Emmerson:
The future history of the Arctic

Øystein Jensen and Svein Vigeland Rottem:
"The Politics of Security and International Law in Norway's Arctic Waters"
Polar Record, Vol 46, pp. 75-83, 2010

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