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Articles and papers
2013
2012
2011
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2009
2008
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2013
2012
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2009
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2013
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2013
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Articles and papers 2012

Sarah Wolf:

Svarlbard's Maritime Zones, their Status under International Law and Current and Future Disputes Scenarios, SWP Working Paper 2013/Nr. 02, SWP Berlin

 

Andreas Maurer / Stefan Steinicke /Arno Engel /Stefanie Mnich / Lisa Oberländer:

The EU as an Arctic Actor? Interests and Governance ChallengesReport on the 3rd Annual Geopolitics in the High North – GeoNor – Conference and joint GeoNor workshops, Berlin, 22-24 May 2012

 

Andreas Raspotnik / Bettina Rudloff:

The EU as a shipping actor in the Arctic. Characteristics, interests and perspectives, SWP Working Paper FG 2, 2012/Nr. 4, December 2012, SWP Berlin

 

Stefan Steinicke / Sascha Albrecht:

Search and Rescue in the ArcticWorking Paper FG 2, 2012/Nr. 05, December 2012, SWP Berlin

 

Katarzyna Zysk:

Vil vise muskler i nordFeature story, Aftenposten, published 29 January 2013

 

Xi Nan and Morten Anker:
Prospects for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Arctic, Pöyry Working Paper no. 5, August 2012

This paper aims to analyze the situation for the offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG)
development in the Arctic in light of recent market flux. The Arctic is expected to contain
vast natural gas resources but have hesitated to develop LNG projects due to dramatic
market changes. Unclear market trends, high development costs and harsh climate all
together make Arctic LNG projects quite uncertain.
This paper aims to analyze the situation for the offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG)development in the Arctic in light of recent market flux. The Arctic is expected to containvast natural gas resources but have hesitated to develop LNG projects due to dramaticmarket changes. Unclear market trends, high development costs and harsh climate alltogether make Arctic LNG projects quite uncertain. 
Katarzyna Zysk:

Domestic Drivers of Russia’s Arctic Policies, paper presented at International Studies Association Annual Convention, Panel: Comparing Arctic Strategies: The Sources of National Policies for the High North, 3 April 2012, San Diego, CA.

This paper offers a systematic analysis of the domestic drivers behind Russia’s Arctic policies. A special attention is devoted to the “how, by whom and why” the actions are influenced and shaped. Given the complexity of the topic, this paper focuses primarily on exploring Russian economic interests in the region, clearly emphasized by the political leadership envisioning the Arctic as the future foremost strategic base for natural resources and prospective the main passageway for the Euro-Asian maritime shipping. This paper places the region within Russia's broader economic policies and explores the impact of the political structure, sub-state interest groups and competition between the elites, as well as the cultural factors on the shape of Russia’s Arctic policies and behaviour. This analysis addresses Russia’s security and military interests in the region as crucial elements complementing the comprehensive picture of the state policies in the region.


Katarzyna Zysk:
Maritime security: Rights and Interests in the Arctic, a paper presented at the workshop: “Maritime Security: Interests and Rights at Sea”, part of the project: International Order at Sea, Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis, New Delhi, 21 May 2012.

After a brief historical account of the role of the Arctic in strategic calculations of great powers, this paper
analyses current and potential future factors determining the Arctic maritime security environment. It examines interests and policies in the High North of three Arctic rim countries: the United States as the global great power in the region, Russia as the Arctic “superpower”, and Norway as a small, but very active state, which has, next to Russia, largely contributed to generate the renewed international interest for the region. It examines the Norwegian strategies of resource management and efforts to bring about legal regulations, which have contributed to maintain low tension in the region. This paper assesses risks to maritime security in an ice-diminished Arctic and implications of the expected growing activity for political stability in the region and beyond. 


Heather A. Conley, Terry Toland, Jamie Kraut and Andreas Østhagen:
A new security Architecture for the Arctic? An American perspectice, CSIS report, January 2012.

 

The Arctic will experience extraordinary economic and environmental change over the next several decades. Commercial, human, and state interaction will rise dramatically. More drilling for oil and gas in the region and growing shipping and ecotourism as new shipping routes come into existence are just a few of the examples of increased human activity in the Arctic. The melting of the Arctic ice cap is now exceeding previous scientific and climatic predictions. Arctic economics and an increasingly ice-free and hostile climatic environment are on a direct collision course, driving a clear need for a new paradigm to meet pressing security challenges that Arctic nations have thus far been unprepared or ill equipped to address.

 

Creating a twenty-first century security architecture for the Arctic presents the United States with a conundrum: U.S. Arctic policy must be given a sense of urgency and focus at the same moment that U.S. defense budgets are being reduced and U.S. military planners consider the Arctic to be “an area of low conflict.” How does one economically and militarily square this circle? While there has been some discussion of the form and format of international Arctic security cooperation, the debate has often focused on what issues cannot be discussed rather than on those that must be addressed. Arctic stakeholders have yet to discuss seriously what collective security framework Arctic states should use to address the emerging security challenges in the region, despite signing legally binding agreements on international search and rescue and negotiating international agreements on oil spills and response. This report analyzes the drivers of change in the region, examines the key Arctic security actors and institutions, and explores the potential for a new security architecture for the Arctic. 


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Norwegian Institute for defence Studies CSIS Fritjof Nansen Institute Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik University of Tromsø Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the MFA of Russia University of Oslo Institute of general history Norwegian Defence Research Establishment Econ Pöyry
 
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